August 23, 2022 5 min read
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical in the cannabis sativa plant, also known as hemp or cannabis. You might be familiar with the cannabis plant because they are grown for marijuana, but it's not the same. One specific form of CBD is approved as a drug in the USA for treatment.
It’s obtained from hemp, a form of sativa plant that contains a small amount of THC. It seems to affect some chemicals in the brain, but it's different from the effects of THC. A prescription is used for medicinal purposes. The law passed in 2018 made it legal. Below are the uses and effects of CBD;
Humans have a receptor called cannabinoids which are part of the endocannabinoid system. The body produces two kinds of receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 is present everywhere in the body, especially in the brain. They are there to coordinate the emotions, mood, appetite, thinking memories, emotions, and various other functions. CB2 is found in the immune system to deal with pain and inflammation. CBD stimulates cannabinoids, which are known as endocannabinoids. Tetrahydrocannabinol is attached to CB1 receptors. It works with other receptors like opioid receptors that control pain and affects glycine receptors that control a brain chemical called serotonin which helps control moods.
It has been recommended for many different purposes, some of them not tested, some tested. Edibles are the only CBD product approved by FDA. According to Tzadok et al. (2016), treating two rare seizures and epilepsy in adults and children might be prescribed. It may reduce anxiety/stress and chronic long-term pain like back pain, insomnia, or sleeping issues. There are oral, topical, and inhaled CBD products for dystonia movement disorder, rare genetic disorders, bone marrow transplant rejection, opioid withdrawal, and smoking sensation. It is also used to alleviate symptoms associated with parson’s diseases.
Blessing et al. (2015) established that a lower dosage of CBD improves anxiety symptoms while a higher dosage has no effect. The way CBD acts on the brain explains how this happens. In low dosage, CBD acts the same as the surrounding molecules normally bound to the receptor that turns up their signaling. However, the higher dose of too much activity at the receptor produces the opposite effects.
It helps people with substance use disorder. Calpe-López et al. (2019) argued that it could treat people with opioids, cocaine, and use disorder. But it depends on the substances. CBD without THC does not decrease withdrawal symptoms related to opioid use but reduces drug-seeking behaviors in people using cocaine and other similar drugs. It can help treat cannabis and nicotine dependence.
Jadoon et al. (2017) commented that CBD might reduce the risk of heart diseases because it lowers high blood pressure in some people. Its complementary therapy for people with high blood pressure affected by anxiety and stress.
Brunetti et al. (2020) noted that the FDA approved a CBD oral solution called Epidiolex. It's used to treat two kinds of epilepsy in children under the age of 2, Lennox-Gas taut syndrome and dravet syndrome, which are rare genetic disorders that cause lifelong seizures. It interacts with seizures medication and increases their concentration in the blood.
Cannabis is an effective treatment for long-term chronic pain. According to Russo et al. (2007), combining THC, CBD, and THC alone can generally improve the pain measure. It's effective in non-cancer pain. Topical CBD reduces muscle tension and pain when applied for 2 weeks.
They can be used as edibles orally or topically applied to the skin. It has different concentrations of CBD oil and may be used in both ways. Oral products include edible gummies and capsules. Topical CBD products are found in balms, creams, and lotions. And they are in various concentrations.
Most people tolerate CBD products well; however, side effects can occur. CBD is only safe if it’s taken in the appropriate dosage when taken orally. Doses of up to 200mg daily for 13 weeks. With the healthcare provider's guidance, a specific prescription of CBD products has been used at higher doses and for longer durations. CBD can cause side effects as follows;
It's considered a benefit and side effect. The effect might be stronger if you take CBD with other sedation medications.
CBD can cause dry mouth and eyes. The side effect that occurs with THC can happen with CBD.
It might interfere with other medications that the user is taking. It's important to consult your doctor about whether the CBD could affect an existing prescription.
Those who ingest CBD supplements might experience nausea. It depends on how sensitive you're to CBD and the amount you digest.
Check with your pharmacist or doctor before taking CBD with other medications. CBD may interact with common medications like warfarin, lithium, tramadol, codeine, valproic acid, and carbamazepine; both are anti-seizures medications. Fatty foods increase the absorption of CBD.
People with liver problems should not take CBD. Do not take medicine that is prescribed to control seizures or epilepsy. It's unsafe to take CBD if you're breastfeeding and pregnant. The products are contaminated with other ingredients that may harm your infant or fetus. It's safe for children to take a specific prescription CBD product by mouth in doses. However, it is approved for children with a condition who are 1-year-old. It is not clear if it's safe for children.
Hemp plants can be grown for different purposes. Some are made for CBD products some are made for marijuana. CBD products don't get you high they help relieve stress, drug withdrawal, anxiety, and nerve pain. However, there’s little evidence of the health benefits since the studies were done with animals, not humans. Learn about the CBD product's different dosages and preparation if you want to try it. Before you use CBD, tail to your provider; if you take certain medicines or have a health condition, you may not be able to use the products.
Blessing, E. M., Steenkamp, M. M., Manzanares, J., & Marmar, C. R. (2015). Cannabidiol As A Potential Treatment For Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics, 12(4), 825-836.
Brunetti, P., Faro, A. F. L., Pirani, F., Berretta, P., Pacifici, R., Pichini, S., & Busardò, F. P. (2020). Pharmacology And Legal Status Of Cannabidiol. Annali Dell'istituto Superiore Di Sanità, 56(3), 285-291.
Calpe-López, C., García-Pardo, M. P., & Aguilar, M. A. (2019). Cannabidiol Treatment Might Promote Resilience To Cocaine And Methamphetamine Use Disorders: A Review Of Possible Mechanisms. Molecules, 24(14), 2583.
Jadoon, K. A., Tan, G. D., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2017). A Single Dose Of Cannabidiol Reduces Blood Pressure In Healthy Volunteers In A Randomized Crossover Study. JCI Insight, 2(12).
Russo, E. B., Guy, G. W., & Robson, P. J. (2007). Cannabis, Pain, And Sleep: Lessons From Therapeutic Clinical Trials Of Sativex®, A Cannabis‐Based Medicine. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 4(8), 1729-1743.
Tzadok, M., Uliel-Siboni, S., Linder, I., Kramer, U., Epstein, O., Menascu, S., ... & Ben-Zeev, B. (2016). CBD-Enriched Medical Cannabis For Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy: The Current Israeli Experience. Seizure, 35, 41-44.
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