August 20, 2022 5 min read

CBD AND SLEEP DISORDERS

Quality sleep is a fundamental human need, especially in weight management, maintaining normal hormone levels, and a pleasant mood. Sleep disorders interfere with regular quality sleep, affecting normal body functioning. Fortunately, the cannabidiol (CBD) compound can impact these sleep disorders positively. CBD is a major cannabinoid compound found in the cannabis plant. Get more information on CBD and sleep disorders in this article.

Quality sleep is among the fundamental human needs. It is also essential in most health aspects like weight management, maintaining normal hormone levels, and a pleasant mood. Not everyone is capable of achieving sound and good sleep solely. Sleep disorders interfere with regular quality sleep. According to Kuhathasan et al. (2019), the cannabidiol (CBD) compounds can impact these sleep disorders positively. CBD is a major cannabinoid compound present in the cannabis plant. It does not cause psychoactive and euphoric effects, unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol's versatility has caused medical professionals to discover its enormous therapeutic properties. As a result, the CBD market has expanded across nations significantly. Discover more about CBD and sleep disorders here.

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol is among the major cannabis cannabinoid compounds. The cannabis plant has two major variants, including hemp and cannabis sativa (marijuana). Marijuana-derived products contain limited cannabidiol amounts but high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels. Contrastingly, Hermann (2008) noted that hemp-sourced products have high cannabidiol contents but limited THC contents. Some US States illegalize the utilization and possession of marijuana-derived substances. However, the 2018 Farm Bill legalized farming, production, harvesting, and consumption of hemp-related products. This was valid provided these products constituted below 0.3% THC levels. Medical experts discovered the potential benefits of cannabidiol in human health. Manufacturers avail this essential compound in various products like topicals, creams, capsules, and oils. Enthusiasts report positive results after consuming foods or drinks infused with CBD. Many people prioritize it in various health conditions. Furthermore, consumers can administer cannabidiol compounds in various methods, including vaping, topically, sublingually, and orally. However, these methods deliver the desired health effects, although effects manifest at different times.

What are Sleep Disorders?

Sleep disorders involve inconsistencies in the amount, timing, and sleep quality. This results in daytime impairment and distress in functioning. These disorders manifest in various health or medical conditions like depression, cognitive disorders, or anxiety. Sleep disorder types include insomnia, obstructive narcolepsy, parasomnias, twitchy leg syndrome, and sleep apnea. Sleep problems are associated with both emotional and physical problems. Additionally, they can intensify mental health disorders and become a symptom of various mental health issues. According to Baglioni et al. (2011), 1/3 of adults complain about insomnia symptoms while about ten meet the requirement for insomnia condition.

Types of CBD

Cannabidiol comes in different types, including CBD isolates, broad and full-spectrum. 

CBD Isolate

Cannabidiol isolates are the purest CBD form. They are extracted from either cannabis sativa or hemp plants. Clarke et al. (2007) showed that isolates are 99% pure and exclusively contain cannabidiol contents. There are several CBD extraction methods like carbon dioxide (CO2), solvent extraction, and ethanol. Most reputable companies utilize the carbon dioxide technique because it represents the industrial standard extraction method. This CBD variety has limited health benefits since all cannabinoid compounds are excluded except CBD. However, it is excellent for individuals who might be allergic to other cannabinoids like terpenes.

Full-spectrum CBD

This cannabidiol extract constitutes all cannabis compounds, including terpenes, essential oils, fatty acids, flavonoids, cannabinol, cannabigerol, and tetrahydrocannabinol. These compounds work synergistically to generate entourage effects. Maayah et al. (2020) noted that the effects emerge when amplified individual elements produce more health benefits. Medical providers encourage customers to purchase this extract to enjoy its numerous benefits. Additionally, the manufacturers extract full-spectrum through a similar method as isolates. However, it might be undesirable for people uncomfortable with THC's intoxicating properties. Also, this extract might cause consumers to fail pre-employment drug examination tests due to THC contents.

Broad-spectrum CBD

Broad-spectrum comprises all compounds in full-spectrum except THC. According to Raether & Hänel (2003), these constituents work together to produce entourage effects, although lesser than its counterpart. This extract is appropriate for individuals who dislike THC's intoxicating properties but are comfortable with other cannabis compounds. It undergoes a pure extraction process like other extracts where THC is eliminated finally. Furthermore, broad-spectrum has many benefits than isolate but fewer than full-spectrum.

Types of Sleep Disorders

Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep condition causes breathing inconsistencies when sleeping. A victim of such sleep disorder has recurrent airway obstruction episodes while sleeping, thus causing breathing pauses, snorting, and snoring. This disturbed sleep results in daytime fatigue and sleepiness. According to Jehan et al. (2017), sleep apnea affects about 2-15% of seniors. The main risk factors associated with this condition include obesity.

Nightmare

Nightmare condition involves recurrent occurrences of well-remembered, distressing, and lengthy dreams that involve struggles to shun danger or threats. They usually manifest during the second half episode of the main sleep. Typically, nightmares are story-like, elaborate, and lengthy series of dream images that appears factual and cause distress, fear, and anxiety. These experiences can cause significant problems or distress in functioning.

Can CBD help with Sleep Disorders?

Cannabidiol functions through interacting with the human endocannabinoid system. This system plays vital roles in maintaining particular body functions like sleep, mood, digestion, reproduction, circadian rhythms, appetite, and homeostasis (a state of body balance). There exist many cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Fundamentally, there are two receptors, including CB2 and CB1. According to Murillo-Rodríguez et al. (2006), cannabinoids bind to these cells and generate different effects.

Additionally, CBD interacts with certain receptors, thus helping with the wake or sleep cycle. Furthermore, it positively impacts pain and anxiety and often disturbs restful sleep. By impacting specific symptoms, sleep might be favored.

Conclusion

Quality sleep is an essential requirement for better health and general wellness. In this regard, it supports weight management, maintaining normal hormone levels, and a pleasant mood. Sleep disorders interfere with regular and consistent sleep cycles, affecting normal body functioning. Some types of sleep disorders include sleep apnea, nightmares, and insomnia. Fortunately, the cannabidiol (CBD) compound shows positive results when used in consumers with sleep disorders. CBD is a cannabis compound known for its potential therapeutic properties. It comes in three types such as isolates, full, and broad-spectrum. CBD functions by interacting with the human endocannabinoid system, which helps with sleep disorders.

References

Baglioni, Battagliese, Feige, Spiegelhalder, Nissen, Voderholzer,& Riemann, (2011). Insomnia As A Predictor Of Depression: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation Of Longitudinal Epidemiological Studies. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 135(1-3), 10-19.

Clarke, R. C., & Watson, D. P. (2007). Cannabis And Natural Cannabis Medicines. In Marijuana And The Cannabinoids (Pp. 1-15). Humana Press.

Hermann, A. M. (2008). The Effect Of Plant Population Density And Harvest Timing On Agronomic Fibre Yield And Quality Characteristics Of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis), Cultivar Alyssa, Grown In The Parkland Region Of Manitoba, Canada (Doctoral Dissertation, University Of Manitoba).

Jehan, Zizi, Pandi-Perumal, Wall, Auguste, Myers, & Mcfarlane,(2017). Obstructive Sleep Apnea And Obesity: Implications For Public Health. Sleep Medicine And Disorders: An International Journal, 1(4).

Kuhathasan, Dufort, Mackillop, Gottschalk, Minuzzi, & Frey, (2019). The Use Of Cannabinoids For Sleep: A Critical Review On Clinical Trials. Experimental And Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(4), 383.

Maayah, Z. H., Takahara, S., Ferdaoussi, M., & Dyck, J. R. (2020). The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin The Biological Benefits Of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract In The Treatment Of Neuropathic Pain And Inflammation. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis Of Disease, 1866(7), 165771.

Murillo-Rodríguez, E., Millán-Aldaco, D., Palomero-Rivero, M., Mechoulam, R., & Drucker-Colín, R. (2006). Cannabidiol, A Constituent Of Cannabis Sativa, Modulates Sleep In Rats. FEBS Letters, 580(18), 4337-4345.

Raether, W., & Hänel, H. (2003). Nitroheterocyclic Drugs With Broad Spectrum Activity. Parasitology Research, 90(1), S19-S39.