August 26, 2022 5 min read
What are some of the effects of CBD oil? How long does it take CBD oil to be effective for an individual? Looking for better and quality CBD oil? Is CBD oil addictive? This article explains how CBD oil is effective for an individual.
CBD is gaining popularity not only in social circles but also among research analysts around the globe due to its potential use in the treatment of various illnesses. Forouzanfar & Hosseinzadeh (2018) explains that ancient Chinese used CBD to treat various inflammations, cramps, and treatment of malaria. In addition, cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC, led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. This system works alongside the central nervous system to modulate different body functions such as immune response, body temperature, and certain locomotory functions. CBD is mainly extracted from hemp, although it can also be extracted from marijuana when the law allows manufacturers to do so.
Addiction is defined as a compulsive desire to use a substance and an inability to stop using it in the face of negative consequences. Substances that cause dependence and addiction affect the brain's pleasure centers, often causing people to need to consume a substance to avoid withdrawal symptoms. In many cases, people may need to use more and more of a drug to maintain the same euphoric effects that they initially felt. While cannabidiol interacts with the body's endocannabinoid system, it lacks the intoxicating properties of THC. According to Zuardi et al. (2006), CBD oil has a good safety profile and is well tolerated at doses ranging from 600mg to 1,500 mg. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive compound in cannabis that causes the marijuana 'high.' THC enters the bloodstream and attaches to the endocannabinoid receptors found in areas of the brain associated with pleasure, movement, memory, and thought when administered. THC has properties likened to anandamide, a chemical substance in the brain responsible for binding with various CBD receptors. Once in the brain, THC binds to CB1 receptors in the cortex, basal ganglia, and hippocampus parts of the brain, which results in loss of communication between neurons, thus resulting in the user being high. Continual usage of high strain marijuana will cause tolerance which means the user will have to use more THC to achieve the same effect. It eventually leads to addiction to the drug.
CBD, unlike THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), has no psychoactive effects. And, unlike marijuana, which can lead to addiction, current research indicates that CBD is not addictive. CBD has no effects in humans that indicate the potential for abuse or dependence. There is currently no evidence of any public health issues associated with pure CBD. Hurd et al. (2015) explain that CBD has the same potential for addiction as a placebo pill. Users should note that many CBD products may contain trace amounts of THC. According to federal law, THC levels in hemp-derived CBD products must be less than 0.3 percent.
Schoedel et al. (2018) explain that several cannabinoid drugs, such as rimonabant and nabiximols, have been proposed as potential pharmacological treatments for substance abuse. CBD has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for substance use disorder management. Cannabinoids can reduce craving and relapse in abstinent substance users by impairing reconsolidation of drug-reward memory, the salience of drug cues, and inhibiting the reward-facilitating effect of drugs. Such functions are most likely induced by targeting the endocannabinoid and serotonergic systems, though the precise mechanism is unknown. CBD is a non-rewarding substance that acts on various receptor systems, including opioid, serotonergic, and cannabinoid systems. It is a non-competitive CB1R antagonist with a low affinity for the primary ligand site of CB1Rs and instead acts via negative allosteric modulation. CBD has a good safety profile, with only minor side effects in preclinical animal studies and human studies. Combined with CBD's low abuse potential, it also makes it an excellent therapeutic candidate. Chye et al. (2019) state that CBD has also been shown to regulate mesolimbic activity and potentially attenuate substance-induced dysregulation of the mesolimbic circuitry, implying its utility in treating SUDs.
Masataka (2019) explains that CBD may be useful in treating anxiety disorders as it has a powerful anxiety-relieving effect in animal research. In most studies, lower doses of CBD (10 milligrams per kilogram, mg/kg, or less) improved some anxiety symptoms, but higher doses (100 mg/kg or more) had almost no effect. The way CBD acts in the brain may explain why this occurs. CBD, in low doses, may act similarly to surrounding molecules that normally bind to the receptor, "turning up" their signaling. However, at higher doses, too much activity at the receptor site can have the opposite effect. It would negate CBD's beneficial effects.
Also, Masataka (2019) explains that CBD oil may reduce the risk of heart disease in some people by lowering blood pressure. Nine healthy men were given 600 mg of CBD or a placebo at the same dose in the study. CBD users had lower blood pressure before and after stressful events such as exercise or exposure to extreme cold. The volume of strokes was examined in the study (the amount of blood remaining in the heart after a heartbeat). The stroke volume in the CBD-treated men was lower than in the placebo group, indicating that the heart was pumping more efficiently. CBD oil may be an effective complementary therapy for people whose high blood pressure is exacerbated by stress.
CBD interacts with the ECS to modulate various body functions. Unlike THC, CBD does not pose a risk of substance abuse among its users. It interacts with different receptors in the brain that inhibit addictive behavior. Clinical trials indicate that it has the potential to be used among drug addicts to inhibit the side effects of withdrawal symptoms. However, one should consult their physician before using CBD to prevent adverse reactions and be advised on proper dosages.
Forouzanfar, F., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2018). Medicinal herbs in the treatment of neuropathic pain: a review. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, 21(4), 347.
Chye, Y., Christensen, E., Solowij, N., & Yücel, M. (2019). The endocannabinoid system and cannabidiol promise to treat substance use disorders. Frontiers in psychiatry, 10, 63.
Hurd, Y. L., Yoon, M., Manini, A. F., Hernandez, S., Olmedo, R., Ostman, M., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: Opioid relapse takes initial center stage. Neurotherapeutics, 12(4), 807-815.
Masataka, N. (2019). Anxiolytic effects of repeated cannabidiol treatment in teenagers with social anxiety disorders. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 2466.
Schoedel, K. A., Szeto, I., Setnik, B., Sellers, E. M., Levy-Cooperman, N., Mills, C., ... & Sommerville, K. (2018). Abuse potential assessment of cannabidiol (CBD) in recreational polydrug users: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Epilepsy & Behavior, 88, 162-171.
Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A. D. S., Hallak, J. E. C., Moreira, F. A., & Guimaraes, F. S. (2006). Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, is an antipsychotic drug. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 39, 421-429.
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